The Exhibit Industry Glossary of Terms is a work product of the Exhibit Industry Task Force, and was first published in the fall of 2001. The Glossary is presented here as a Wiki file which means that all visitors to the site are welcome to add to this list of terms,or make amendments to existing definitions.

The Glossary is presented as a service to all EACA members and our industry colleagues and customers.



A1 — First class condition.

AAR — Against All Risks.


ACOM — Association for Convention Operations Managers – the industry association for event coordinators from hotels and convention centers.


AQ — Any Quantity.

ASCAP — American Society of Authors, Composers, and Publishers.

A/V — Audio/visual support such as television monitors, radios, or taped music.

A/V Contractor — Supplier of audio/visual equipment.

Accent Lighting –– Directional lighting used to highlight a particular area or object to draw attention to that portion of the field of view.

Acceptance — Any agreement to purchase goods under specified terms.

Access Panel — Removable panel or section of exhibit to permit access to lamps, projector mechanisms, etc.

Acetate — Film positive or negative from which silk screens are produced. Also, a family of plastics for light transmission and surface protection.

Acetone — Solvent and/or adhesive agent for bonding many plastic materials.

Acoustical Tile — Composition board made into squares and placed upon the ceiling or walls to reduce sound.

Acrylic — The family of clear, color, and translucent thermoplastic resins such as Plexiglas or Lucite.

Acrylic Emulsion — A water-based latex made of acrylic polymer and used for coatings and/or impregnations.

Adjustable Standard — Vertical support that allows shelf bracket to be affixed at any point in the support.

Adlux — A black and white photo transparency.

Ad Valorem — According to value; Ad. Val. See DUTY.

Advance Order — An order for show services sent to the service contractor before move-in. Compare FLOOR ORDER.

Advance Rates — Fees associated with advance orders, which typically include discounts when paid in advance.

Advertising Specialties — Promotional items with a firm’s name and/or marketing message.

Advisory Capacity — A term indicating that a shipper’s agent or representative is not empowered to make definitive decisions or adjustments without approval of the group or individual represented. Compare WITHOUT RESERVE.

Affixed Merchandise — Client’s products fastened to display.

Affreightment (Contract of) — An agreement between a steamship line (or similar carrier) and an importer or exporter in which cargo space is reserved on a vessel for a specified time and at a specified price. The importer/exporter is obligated to make payment whether or not the shipment is made.

Agent — Any bona fide representative with proper credentials from party represented. See FOREIGN SALES AGENT, INTERNATIONAL SALES AGENT.

Air Cargo –– Any property carried, or to be carried, in an aircraft, excluding passenger baggage.

Airwall — Partition wall used to sub-divide meeting and/or exposition space.

Air Freight — Materials shipped via airplane.

Airway Bill — Also called AIR CONSIGNMENT NOTE. A bill of lading issued by the airline that covers both domestic and international flights transporting goods to a specified destination. Technically, it is a non-negotiable instrument of air transport that serves as a receipt for the shipper, indicating that the carrier has accepted the goods listed therein and obligates itself to carry the consignment to the airport of destination according to specified conditions. Compare BILL OF LADING, INLAND BILL OF LADING, OCEAN BILL OF LADING, THROUGH BILL OF LADING.

Aisle — Area between booths for audience traffic movement.

Aisle Carpet — Carpeting laid in the aisles.

Aisle Signs — Signs, usually suspended, indicating aisle numbers or letters.

Ambient Light — Uncontrolled and unintentional illumination.

Americans with Disabilities Act — In the United States, the most current law regulating the accessibility of public buildings to persons with disabilities.

Amorphic Lens — Special lens for projectors used to eliminate distortion in abnormally wide throws.

Ampere –– The standard measurement of current.

Animation — Movement of either light or mechanical action.

Anodizing — The process of preserving metal by adding a protective oxide film by an electrolytic process.

Anvil Case ––- Reinforced molded plastic case, normally with foam cut-outs for transporting fragile materials.

Anti-Stat for Carpets — A spray that helps reduce static electricity in carpets.

Anti-Stat Wax — Solution applied to plastics to minimize dust accumulation.


Applique — Any applied item typically vinyl or paper backed with adhesive.

Arbitration. ––- Parties in dispute come together to present their sides of the story to an impartial arbitrator who acts as an impartial judge and makes a decision on the dispute.

Arc Light — Illumination produced by a carbon electrode gap employed in slide projection and silk screen production.

Arch — An exhibit display ceiling or entryway that spans two points.

Area Agreement — A union contract covering companies and unions that bargain on an area-wide basis.

Armorply — Term for plywood or lumber having metal veneer.

Arrival Notice –– A document issued by railroads, airlines and maritime services identifying the shipment is sent to the consignee or their agent and informing consignee/agent of cargo’s arrival.

Ash Stands — Stands that hold ashtrays. Also known as SMOKERS.

Assembly — The process of erecting display component parts into a complete exhibit.

Association Agreement — Union contract negotiated by a group of employers through an employer’s association with the union representing their employees.

ATA Carnet — See CARNET.

At-Site — Location of exhibit or project. Also called ON-SITE.

Attendance — Number of people at show or exhibit.

Attendee — One who attends an exposition. May also be a Delegate or Visitor, but should not be used for “exhibitor”.

Attendee Brochure — Direct mail piece sent to current and prospective attendees, that promotes the benefits of attending a specific show. Compare EXHIBITOR PROSPECTUS.

Audit — An independent verification of attendance figures submitted by an exposition’s producers.

Auditorium-Style Set-Up — hairs only are set up in rows facing a head table, stage, or speaker. Variations in set up are semicircular and v-shaped.


BDI — Both Dates Inclusive.

BMI — Broadcast Music Incorporated.

BO — Bad Order; Buyers Option.

B/P — Bills Payable.

BWG — Birmingham Wire Gauge.

Baby Spots — Small spotlights in a booth. Usually 15 watt.

Back Light — A light source that illuminates any transparent or translucent material from behind.

Back-Lit Panels — Three-dimensional structure (or box) with lights placed behind a transparent image.

Backloader — Truck that loads from back opening door.

Backwall — Panel arrangement at rear of booth area, typically made of cloth, plastic, or other materials.

Backwall Exhibit — An exhibit that is back to back with another exhibit or against a building wall.

Badge — An identification tag worn by participants at an event. At a trade show, badges usually are color-coded to identify exhibitors and indicate attendees’ job function.

Baffle — A partition to control light, air, sound, or traffic flow.

Baling Wire -–- Thin gauged wire often used in display work for fastening or tying objects.

Ballast –– A power supply used with arc or discharge lamps to control current through the bulb.

Ball Lights –– Stationary adjustable lights found on older model exhibits.

Bank Guarantee Cash Deposit –– Payable by the exhibitor to the forwarder, Customs agent, or official authorities in place of a temporary import bond to ensure the amount requested is the minimum amount of import duties and taxes that would be paid in case of final import.

Bank Pins –– Pins used for hanging booth ID signs, alternative to S-hooks.

Banjo (Fabric) — Type of lightweight cloth used for backdrops.

Banner — A suspended decorative or communicative panel, usually a temporary cloth or paper structure.

Banquet-Style Set-Up — Typically a grouping of rounds set in such a way as to facilitate the serving of food, most often a hexagonal or square pattern.

Bargaining Agent — Union recognized by the employers or designated by a government agency to act as the exclusive representative of employees in a bargaining unit.

Bargaining Unit — A group of employees designated by a government agency or accepted by the employer as constituting an appropriate unit for representation by a union.

Barn Doors –– An accessory that fits onto the front of a light source consisting of four hinged flaps used to control light spill.

Barter — Trade in which merchandise is exchanged directly for other merchandise without use of money. Barter is an important means of trade with countries using currency that is not readily convertible.

Base — Steel floor support piece for upright post.

Batten –– 1” x 3” pieces of wood (or 1” x 4”) which can be used to fasten drape or other material

Bead — Metal edge of lath or framing that finishes corners or openings and gives plaster finish continuous, smooth corners.

Bead Board –– This is a circuit board, which is most often carrying less than 24 volts of electricity.

Beaded Screen — Front projection material with high reflective surface (usually minute glass beads).

Beam –– The size, shape and sharpness of the image of the light as projected on a surface.

Bed Hook — Metal hardware in pairs (male and female) that are attached onto a panel edge, permitting an easy coupling of panels.

Ben-Day — Technique of photographing continuous tone art through screen to break up subject for reproduction.

Bill of Exchange (B/E) — See DRAFT.

Bill of Lading (B/L or BOL) — A document that establishes the terms of a contract between ashipper and a transportation company under which freight is to be moved between specified points for a specified charge. Usually prepared by the shipper on forms issued by the carrier, it serves as a document of title, a contract of carriage, a receipt of goods, and that the carrier has assumed responsibility for the cargo until it is delivered. Also see AIR WAYBILL, INLAND BILL OF LADING, OCEAN BILL OF LADING, THROUGH BILL OF LADING.

Black Light — Ultraviolet lighting that when applied causes phosphorescent paints to glow.

Blanket Wrap — Non-crated freight shipped via van line covered with protective blankets or padding.

Bleed — Area beyond usable section of blowup or copy block that allows for trimming or wrapping; when an image runs to one or more edges of a substrate or medium.

Blind Fasterning ––Method of using nails or screws to secure tongue and groove flooring into the edge of the board just above the tongue thus concealing the fastener.

Blister Pack — Vacuum-formed transparent plastic cover.

Block Out — Usually refers to painting out portions of photo, negative on screen.

Blow-Up — Photographic enlargement.

Blower — General term for device to circulate or remove warm air from restricted areas, i.e., projector housings.

Blueprint — A mechanical drawing of booth layout, construction, and specifications. Also see SET UP DRAWING.

Blue Sky — Term for extreme design, thinking or abstract value.

Board of Directors Set-Up — Tables are set in rectangle or oval shape with chairs on both sides and ends.

Bonded Warehouse — A warehouse authorized by customs authorities for storage of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are removed.

Boneyard — A facility storage area where empty crates are stored during exposition. This area may be located within the exposition hall in an unused portion of the floor. Also known as DUMP.

Booking — An arrangement with a company for use of facilities, goods or services.

Boom Lift –– — A motorized platform used to lift people to a given height. ALSO KNOWN AS SNORKEL, FLYING PLATFORM, SCISSORS LIFT, CONDOR, or KNUCKLE BOOM.

Booth — One or more standard units of exhibit space. A standard unit is generally known to be a 10’ by 10’ space. However, if an exhibitor purchases multiple units side by side or back to back, the combined space is still referred to as a “booth”.

Booth Area — The amount of floor space assigned to and occupied by an exhibitor.

Booth Number — The number designated by show management for each exhibitor’s space.

Booth Personnel — Staff assigned to represent an exhibitor in their assigned space.

Booth Sign — Sign usually stating name, city, state, and booth number of exhibitor.

Booth Size — Dimensions of assigned space.

Boothmanship (Exhibitorship) — The booth staff’s necessary skills to effectively present an exhibiting company’s message. Includes body language, opening line and message presentation.

Border Chaser — Programmed lighting around signs.

Box Framing — Perimeter frame with lumber on edge.

Brad Gun –– A pneumatic device which installs brads of various sizes.

Break Terminal — Location at which common carriers separate consolidated freight.

Breakdown — To dismantle or prepare for packing and shipping at the end of an event. Also to itemize estimates, invoices, and costs.

Breakout Rooms — Small meeting rooms set up for a group within an event as opposed to a plenary or general session.

Breakpoint — Level at which discounts are allowed for volumes of freight.

Brushed Finish — Finish primarily on aluminum or steel achieved by rubbing with wire brush or steel wool to achieve a “matte” quality.


Buck-boost transformer –– This is a transformer used to convert electrical voltage either up or down, (such as 208v to 220v, or 240v to 220v).

Build-Up — System of programming flasher to light lamps in cumulative sequence with time intervals between.

Bulk Carrier — A vessel engaged in the carriage of bulk commodities that are not packaged, bundled, bottled, or otherwise packed.

Bullet Catch — Device for holding hinged door closed.

Bullnose — Technique for finishing raw edge with half round molding, or shaping to half round.

Burned In Copy — Written copy appearing on photographs.

Bus Duct –– The metal raceway enclosing high-voltage power lines which are suspended from over head and most often carry at least 100 amps or more.

Business Agent —, Appointed or elected position within a union. Salary is not paid by service contractor, but by the union itself Responsibilities may include contract negotiations, contract disputes, contract resolution, as well as administrative responsibilities, depending upon the locale and the union involved.

Butt Joint — Joint in carpentry achieved by nailing and gluing square ends of lumber together.

Buying Agent — See PURCHASING AGENT.

Buying Team — Two or more people from the same company who jointly evaluate aproduct or service and either make, or influence, the buying decision.

BX Cable — BX is no longer manufactured, but the term is still common in the field . SEE MC CABLE..


C&F (Cost and Freight) — A pricing term indicating the freight costs are included in the quoted price.

C&I (Cost and Insurance) — A pricing term indicating the insurance costs are included in the quoted price.

CC — Current Cost.

CAD/CAM — Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing.

CAEM — Canadian Association of Exposition Managers.

CDX –– Blemish-free wood surface.


CEMA (Computer Event Marketing Association) — Trade association for firms exhibiting in computer-related events.

ClF (Cost, Insurance, Freight) — A pricing term indicating that these costs are included in the quoted price.

ClF&C (Cost, Insurance, Freight, and Commission) — A pricing term indicating that these costs are included in the quoted price.

ClF&E (Cost, Insurance, Freight and [Currency] Exchange) — pricing term

indicating that these costs are included in the quoted price.

CME –– Certified Marketing Executive. Official certification offered by Trade Show Exhibitors Association (TSEA) to marketers who complete the pre-requisite curriculum.

COD — Cash on Delivery; Collection on Delivery.

COS — Cash on Shipment.

CR — Carrier’s Risk.

CTLO — Constructive Total Loss Only.

CTSM —Certified Trade Show Marketer.

CWT — Abbreviation for hundred weight. A weight measurement for exhibit freight (100pounds). This is the unit of measure used for on-site freight handling.

Cable Pick — Rigging point or working line used to lift overhead equipment above an exhibit space or exhibit.

Call –– SEE Labor Call.

Call-Out — Notation on drawings or exhibits of special significance, i.e., finish, edge, color, detail, or features.

Cam — Metal disc, either eccentric or notched, commonly used to open and close electrical switches and other mechanical devices.

Camera Ready –– To mount and prepare artwork for shooting or reproduction.

Cam-lock Connectors – Means of connecting electrical cabling to electrical equipment.

Canadian Customs Invoice –– Document required by Canadian Customs identifying shipper, seller, consignee, terms, date of shipment, material being sold/shipped, classification code, quantity, unit and total prices. Additional information required on the invoice depends on shipper and consignee arrangements.

Cancellation or Interruption Insurance — Insurance that protects a show organizer against financial loss or expenses incurred when contractually specified “perils” necessitate canceling or relocating a show, or cause a reduction in attendance.

Canopy — An overhead cover or scrim for projected images.

Cantilever — A horizontal member extending well beyond its vertical support.

Canvas — Material used for outdoor banners, dressing, or decoration.

Cap Nut — A decorative nut, usually plated, to secure end of threaded bolt where finished appearance is desired; sometimes called acorn nut.

Cap Strip — Piece of finished material used to cover end framing.

Carnet — An international customs document, issued by authorized Chambers of Commerce, permitting the holder to carry or send merchandise temporarily into certain foreign countries (for display, demonstration, or similar purposes) without the need for bonds, deposits/guarantees, duties or other Customs formalities. .

Carpenter —A trades person that has served a 4 year apprenticeship to journeyman, used in the installation of exhibits and displays in most cities.

Carpet Knife –– Knife used for cutting carpet. ALSO SEE PUSH KNIFE, TOP CUTTER, BLACK BEAUTY.

Carpet Tape — Double-faced tape used to adhere edge of carpet to floor or to repair carpet tears.

Carriage Bolt — A bolt with a square shank next to the head to allow tightening in wood without tools.

Carrier — Transportation contractor moving freight (van line, common carrier, rail car, airplane).

Cartage — 1. Fee charged for transporting freight between destinations. 2. Short-distance hauling of exhibit properties.

Cartage Agent –– Ground service operator who provides pickup and delivery in areas not served directly by air carrier.

Cash Against Documents (CAD) — Payment for goods in which a commission house or other intermediary transfers title documents to the buyer upon payment in cash

Cash In Advance (ClA) — Payment for goods in which the price is paid in full before shipment is made. This method is usually used only for small purchases or when the goods are built to order.

Cash With Order (CWO) — Payment for goods in which the buyer pays when ordering and in which the transaction is binding on both parties.

Caterer — Another term for a food service vendor. Often used to apply to vendors who specialize in banquets and theme parties. Typically an exclusive contractor within a facility.

Ceiling Decor — Suspended decorations to enhance appearance of hall or create amore intimate environment by “lowering” the ceiling.

Celastic — Material formed to shape by using treated fabrics, resins, and adhesives.

Celotex — Material composed of compressed paper and adhesives.

Center for Exhibition Industry Research (formerly known as the Trade Show Bureau) — A membership organization representing the entire exhibition industry, whose mission is to promote the growth of the exhibition industry through research, information and communication, and to position exhibitions as primary marketing tools.

Certificate of Inspection — A document certifying that merchandise (such as perishable goods) was in good condition immediately prior to its shipment.

Certificate of Insurance — A basic element of an effective risk management program. Serves as evidence of the financial capability of an indemnitor who has executed an agreement in favor of an organization. Most show organizers require a certificate of insurance from every exhibitor, just as most facilities require one from show organizers.

Certificate of Manufacture — A statement (often notarized) in which a producer of goods certifies that the manufacturing has been completed and the goods are now at the disposal of the buyer.

Certificate of Origin — A document, required by certain foreign countries for tariff purposes, certifying as to the country of origin of specified goods.

Certified Exposition Manager (CEM) — An exposition management professional, asofficially designated by the International Association of Exposition Management.

Certified Manager of Exhibits (CME) — An exhibit industry professional, as officially designated by the Trade Show Exhibitors Association.

Chain Drive — Power transmission via chain for the movement of an object.

Chain Hoist Motor — Motor that pulls a chain through itself in order to lift a load. Inmost concert applications, the motor has been modified to enable it to climb up the chain rather than to pull the chain up to itself. Widely used to suspend structure, signs, and lighting in the convention industry.

Chamfer — Technique of reducing sharp corner of lumber by sanding or machining edge.

Channel — Generally, any material milled or extruded in a continuous “U” shape.

Charter Party — A written contract, usually on a special form, between the owner of a vessel and a “charterer” who rents use of the vessel or a part of its freight space. The contract generally includes the freight rates and the ports involved in the transportation.

Chaser— Electrical device to accomplish rapid sequential lighting.

Cherry Picker — See HIGH JACKER.

Chevron — 1. Type of cloth used for backdrops. 2. Seating pattern where chairs are arranged so that they angle towards the center of the room so that attendees can sit facing the speaker or screen.

Chrome Finish — Electrolytic process of achieving bright finish on metal surface.

Circline — Circular fluorescent fixture.

City Central — Association of AFL-CIO local unions in a city or metropolitan area.

Clamp-on Fixture — Electrical fixture with clamp device for attaching to display.

Classroom –– Tables are lined up in a row, one behind the other on each side of the center aisle with chairs facing the head table

Clean Bill of Lading — A receipt for goods issued by a carrier with an indication that the goods were received in apparent good order and condition, without damages or other irregularities. Compare FOUL BILL OF LADING.

Clean Draft — A draft to which no documents have been attached.

Cleats — Wood strips on sides of shipping container for sliding and handling purposes. Also wood strips on a structure for attaching another fixture or structure.

Collective Agreement — Written agreement between an employer and a union specifying the terms and conditions of employment for workers covered by the contract, the status of the union, and the procedure for settling disputes arising during the contract term. Also known as LABOR AGREEMENT, UNION CONTRACT.

Collective Bargaining — The process of negotiation between an employer or employers and an employee organization, union or unions to reach agreement on the terms and conditions of employment for a specified period.

Collector Ring — Metal ring used to make continuous contact with electrical power, while permitting constant rotation, as on turntables or rotating signs.

Co-Locate — To hold two related shows at the same time and in the same place.

Column — A pillar in an exposition facility that supports the roof or other structures. Usually denoted on FLOOR PLAN as a solid square.

Commercial Invoice — An itemized list of goods shipped, usually included among an exporter’s COLLECTION PAPERS.

Commission Agent — See PURCHASING AGENT.

Common Carrier — An individual, partnership, or corporation that transports persons or goods for compensation. For exhibit materials, usually accepts only crated or cased goods and consolidates freight of more than one customer into one shipment headed for a particular location.

Commutator — Same as COLLECTOR RING.

Comp — Comprehensive layout or design.

Concealed Damage –– Damage to merchandise that is not discovered until the shipment is unpacked.

Concession Stand — Fast-food type of food service placed permanently in a facility.

Confirmed Letter of Credit — A letter of credit, issued by a foreign bank, whose validity has been confirmed by an American bank. An exporter whose payment terms are a confirmed letter of credit is assured of payment even if the foreign buyer or the foreign bank defaults. See LETTER OF CREDIT.

Consignee — Person to whom goods are shipped.

Consignment — Delivery of merchandise from an exporter (the consignor) to an agent (the consignee) under agreement that the agent sell the merchandise for the account of the exporter. The consignor retains title to the goods until the consignee has sold them. The consignee sells the goods for commission and remits the net proceeds to the consignor.

Consignor — Person who sends freight.

Consolidate — Shipping freight to a central depot where several loads bound for the same destination are put together before being shipped to that destination. Freight that is consolidated is often intended for more than one consignee.

Construction Drawing — A drawing that gives detailed diagrams and instructions for building an exhibit.

Consular Declaration — A formal statement, made to the consul of a foreign country, describing goods to be shipped.

Consular Invoice — A document, required by some foreign countries, describing a shipment of goods and showing information such as the consignor, consignee, and value of the shipment. Certified by a consular official of the foreign country, it is used by the country’s customs officials to verify the value, quantity, and nature of the shipment.

Consumer Show — An exposition, of what are generally known as consumer products, that is open to the public. Typically, an admission fee is charged. Also known as PUBLIC SHOW or GATE SHOW.

Contact Cement — Bonding agent usually used for cementing plastic laminates to wood.

Container Detention –– A charge that is assessed when the container is removed from the carrier’s control but is not returned within the allowable free time. ALSO KNOWN AS PIER DEMURRAGE.

Contracting — A system in which all or part of the product or the work to be done is sublet to contractors.

Contractor — An individual or organization providing services to a trade show and/or its exhibitors. May be Official (appointed by show management) or Independent (appointed by exhibitor). Typically refers to either a general service contractor or specialty contractor.

Convention — An assembly of delegates, representatives, and members of an organization convened for a common purpose.

Convention & Visitors Bureau — An organization that promotes a city’s facilities and attractions to tourists and business travelers, and helps show managers and meeting planners with event preparation.

Convention Center — A facility where expositions are held. Also known as EXPOSITION CENTER, FACILITY or HALL. May be purpose built or converted; municipally or privately owned.

Copy Negative — Film negative made from glossy print for production of additional prints.

Copy Panel — Item or area for graphic communication.

Corner Booth — An exhibit space with exposure on at least two aisles. Some shows charge premium prices for these booths.

Corporate Exhibit — An institutional exhibit telling the story of the company without intentionally marketing a specific product or service.

Corporate Show — A show produced by a corporation that is not a show management company. Exhibits are limited to products and services of that corporation or its marketing partners; no competitors participate. Also known as a private show.

Costumer — Hat and coat rack.

Count — 1. Total number of attendees for a given period; 2. Total number of exhibitors for a given period.

Counter — A working cabinet for display, demonstration, or registration.

Countermount — Technique for mounting material to rear of panel equal to weight and consistency to face mounted material. This prevents warping.

Countersink — Technique of recessing heads of screws and nails below the surface.

Countervailing Duty — An extra duty imposed by the Secretary of the Treasury to offset export grants, bounties, or subsidies paid to foreign suppliers in certain countries by the governments of those countries as an incentive to exports.

Cover Plate — A protective, removable panel used with self-contained exhibits in transit.

C-Print — A type of color reproduction print.

Craft Union — A labor organization, the membership in which is restricted to individuals possessing or working at a specific skill or trade, such as electricians, , carpenters, or plumbers. See UNION.

Craftsperson — A skilled individual who provides actual services on the show floor. Usually a unionized worker.

Crate — Typically a wooden container that holds exhibit property for shipment.

Crated Exhibit –– An exhibit that is transported from show to show in crates (small to huge wooden boxes). Crates make handling the exhibit easier, and minimize damage during material handling. In most cases, individual pieces are jigged in place within the crates. Make sure all jig material is left in the empty crates.

Crating List — Names the contents of what is enclosed inside a crate, i.e., exhibit pieces, carpet.

Credit Risk Insurance — Insurance designed to cover risks of nonpayment for delivered goods. Compare MARINE INSURANCE.

Crop Mark — Indication on original art or photo defining area that is to be reproduced.

Crosby –– A clamp connector used with cables.

Cross Aisle — An aisle at a right angle to a main aisle.

Cross Bar — Rod used in draping or as a support brace.

Cube Taps –– Three way plugs for combining electrical cords. (Be warned, these are outlawed by fire code in some facilities.) SEE ALSO TRI TAPS.

Cubic Content — The use of exhibit properties in the airspace over the entire leased area above a height of eight feet or more.

Custom Exhibit — An exhibit created to be a unique solution to the specific requirements of the user.

Customs Broker — An individual or firm licensed to enter and clear goods through Customs. ALSO KNOWN AS CUSTOMHOUSE.

Customs — The authorities designated to regulate the flow of goods to and from a country and to collect duties levied by a country on imports and exports. The term also applies to the procedures involved in such collection.

Cut & Lay — Installation of carpet other than normal booth or aisle size. Meant to cover entire booth size.

Cut-Out — Profile cut display item, such as letters or photos.

Cut Rate — Cost per “hundred weight.”

Cutting Sheet — Drawings made by carpentry shops, detailing size and shape of raw material to be cut. See TEMPLATE.

Cycles — The amount of “movement” in electrical current. International standard is 50cycles; in U.S., 60 cycles.

Cyclorama — Curved, continuous background for theatrical staging, or dioramas.


DAT — 1.Dangerous Articles Tariff. 2. Digital Audio Tape.

D/B/A — Doing Business As.

DOT — Department of Transportation.

DVD (Digital Video Disc) — A CD-size storage device with two layers of data used to store video, images, sound, and presentation software.

Dado — Term in carpentry referring to incised recess in face of lumber.

Dais — A raised platform on which the head table is placed (pronounced “day-iss”).

Damage Report — A report submitted by an exhibitor to a freight company or drayage contractor itemizing damage to shipped goods.

Dangerous Goods –– Articles or substances capable of posing a significant risk to health, safety or property when transported and which are classified according to the most current editions of ICAO Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods and IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations.

Dark Day — A day on which a facility or hall has no events booked.

Date Protection — A guarantee that the dates a show organizer has selected for an event in a specific facility are reserved for that organizer.

Day Glo™ — Trademarked name for iridescent paints or inks that glow.

Dead Man — Temporary post used during installation to help support the weight of an overhead structure.

Dead Time — Time when a worker is unable to work because of factors beyond his or her control and during which he or she is paid. Also called ALLOWED TIME, DOWN TIME, IDLE TIME, or WAITING TIME.

Declared Value — Shipper’s stated value of entire shipment in terms of dollars, or the purpose of determining charges or establishing the limit of carrier’s liability for loss, damage or delay.

Decorating — Dressing up a facility or exhibit with carpet, draping, plants, etc.

Decorator —1.The skilled craftsperson that provides installation and dismantle and booth and hall dressing services for a trade show and/or its exhibitors. SEE INSTALLER. 2. The union that represents decorators, ALSO KNOWN AS INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PAINTERS AND ALLIED TRADES (IUPAT). 3. The official service contractor for an exhibition. ALSO KNOWN AS GENERAL SERVICE CONTRACTOR.

Deferred Air Freight — Long haul air freight that waits for available cargo space, usually one to two days, at a reduced rate.

Deferred Rebate — A deferred rebate is the return of a portion of the freight charges bya carrier or a conference to a shipper, in exchange for the shipper giving all or most of his shipment to the carrier or conference over a specified period of time (usually 6months). Payment of the rebate is deferred for a further similar period, during which the shipper must continue to give all or most of his shipments to the rebating carrier or conference. The shipper thus earns a further rebate that will not, however, be paid without an additional period of exclusive or almost exclusive patronage with the carrier or conference. In this way, the shipper becomes tied to the rebating carrier or conference.

Demographics — Characteristics that help create a profile of exhibitors and attendees. May include company location, job function, purchase budget, or purchase intentions.

Demonstrators — Persons hired to illustrate, demonstrate, or explain products.

Demurrage — Excess time taken for loading or unloading a vessel. Demurrage refers only to situations in which the charterer or shipper, rather than the vessel’s operator, isat fault.

Density — Pounds per cubic foot. The cubic footage of loose articles or pieces, or packaged articles of a rectangular, elliptical or square shape on one plane shall be determined by multiplying the greatest straight line dimensions of length, width and depth in inches, including all projections, and dividing the total by 1728 (to obtain cubic feet). The density is the weight of the article divided by the cubic feet thus obtained.

Deposit — Money required in advance of the use of space or prior to provision of services.

Design — Graphic and pictorial representation of an idea.

Destination Control Statement — Any of various statements that the U.S. Government requires to be displayed on export shipments and that specify the destinations for which export of the shipment has been authorized.

Detail — Construction drawing for fabrication (or specific construction feature).

Devaluation — The official lowering of the value of one country’s currency in terms of one or more foreign currencies. Thus, if the U.S. dollar is devalued in relation to the French franc, one dollar will “buy” fewer francs than before devaluation.

Die Cut — Method of producing repetitive cutout shapes in quantity.

Diffuser — An open grid or a solid translucent plastic to soften or conceal light sources.

Dim Weight — Length x width x height divided by 194 for domestic shipment, or divided by 166 for international shipments.

Dimmer — A device to control light intensity.

Diorama — Dimensional representation in forced perspective.

Directory — A catalog of basic information about the show, including exhibitors, floor plan, and schedule of events. Also called program.

Disconnect — Device to permit easy and rapid separation of electrical components.

Dismantle — 1. To take to pieces or apart. 2. Teardown of exhibit.

Dispatcher — Person responsible for scheduling and routing freight, labor, etc.

Display Builder — 1. Company that fabricates displays. SEE EXHIBIT HOUSE 2. Craftsperson that builds displays.

Display Case — Showcase for displaying products.

Display Rules and Regulations — A set of specifications for exhibit construction endorsed by major exhibit industry associations. Also the set of rules for an exposition that are used by management.

Dispute — A conflict or difference of opinion between an employer and a union or between an employer and employees over some phase of their relationship. Usually refers to a serious controversy that threatens or causes a work stoppage or that is submitted to an arbitrator or government agency for settlement.

Dissolve — See FADE.

Distributor Show — A show produced by a distributor at which exhibitors are the manufacturers of products sold by the distributor and attendees are the distributor’s customers.

Dock — A place where freight is loaded onto and taken from vessels or vehicles.

Dock Receipt — A receipt issued by an ocean carrier to acknowledge receipt of a shipment at the carrier’s dock or warehouse facilities. When delivery of a foreign shipment is completed, the dock receipt is surrendered to the vessel operator or his agent and serves as the basis for the preparation of the Ocean Bill of Lading. Also see WAREHOUSE RECEIPT.

Dolly — Any of several kinds of low, flat, wheeled frames for transporting heavy objects.

Donkey Dick – A metal pole placed on the front of a forklift for carrying rolls of carpet.

Double-Decker — A two-storied exhibit. Also called MULTIPLE STORY EXHIBIT.

Double-Faced Panel — Finished on both sides.

Double-Faced Tape — Tape used to adhere carpet to floor, signs, or panels.

Doubletime — Premium pay, which is double the base rate of hourly wage.

Draper — Person who installs drapes, pleats, and special decor.

Draping — Decorating with drapes.

Drawback — A refund of duties paid on imported goods that is provided at the time of their re-exportation.

Drayage Delivery of exhibit materials from the dock to assigned space, removing empty crates, returning crates at end of show for re-crating, and delivering materials back to dock for carrier loading. NOW KNOWN AS MATERIAL HANDLING.


Dressed Lumber — Term referring to lumber that has been sanded or smoothed down to less than its rough dimensions.

Dressing the Exhibits — Placing graphics, plants, literature, and applying any finishing touches to the display.

Drop Slot — Opening in countertop to receive cards.

DT Labor — Work performed on overtime and charged at twice the published rate.

Duct Tape –– Fabric tape that comes in various colors to match carpet and drape.

Dummy — Mock-up, non-operative.

Dump — See BONEYARD.

Duplex Outlet — Double electrical outlet., otherwise a common household outlet.

Duty — A tax imposed on imports by the customs authority of a country to discourage imports. . Duties are generally based on the value of the goods (ad valorem duties), some other factor such as weight or quantity (specific duties), or a combination of value and other factors (compound duties).

Duventyne — An inexpensive felt-like fabric commonly used for one-time decorative applications.

Dye Transfer — Technique of producing full color, accurate color prints.


E&OK — Errors and Omissions Excepted.

E2MA — Former EACA, now combined with TSEA to become Exhibit & Event Marketers Association.

EAC –– 1. Exhibitor Appointed Contractor. 2. Exhibit Advisory Committee.

EACA –– Exhibitor Appointed Contractor Association.

EAON — Except As Otherwise Noted.

EC –– European Community.

EDAC — Exhibit & Display Association of Canada.

EDC –– Exhibitor Designated Contractor. MORE COMMONLY KNOWN AS EAC.

EDPA (Exhibit Designers & Producers Association) — Trade association for exhibit designers and builders.

EE — Errors Excepted.

ESCA (Exposition Service Contractors Association) — Trade association for trade show contractors; usually exposition manager-appointed contractors.

EVC (Exposition Validation Council) — A subsidiary of the Center for Exhibition Industry Research that validates audited attendance statistics submitted by exposition managers.

Easel — A stand or frame for displaying objects.

Economic Strike — A strike to compel changes in wages, hours, or working conditions, as distinguished from strike to protest unfair labor practice.

Edge Light — Technique of illuminating engraved lines in glass or plastic by transmitting light through edge of material.

Educational Sessions — Time periods during which information or instruction is presented.

Effects Projector — Device combining theatrical projector with variable throw, and rotating decorated lens; used to project ripples, waves, clouds, etc.

Eggcrate — Construction technique of joining two materials by notching both and inserting slots into each other. Also refers to GRIDDED DIFFUSER PANELS.

Electric Eye — A device that creates a light beam, the interruption of which will activate a relay switch for control of a desired animation.

Electrical Contractor — A company contracted by show management to provide electrical services to exhibitors.

Electricians —Highly skilled craftsperson who handles installation of all electrical equipment, which may include headers, and signs, depending on the jurisdiction.

Elevated Table — Table raised to counter height.

Elevations — Front and side views of scaled drawing.

Embedding — Technique of capturing object in Lucite or other materials.

Embedment — Casting in plastic. Can be done with photos and translites, or transparencies.

Emergency Exit –– Door designed for emergency egress, which must be kept clear of obstructions.

Employers’ Association — Organization of employers who band together mainly to deal with labor unions as a unified group.

Empty Sticker — The tag indicating a crate may be moved into storage. The sticker identifies the exhibitor and the return location for the crate.

End Cap — An exhibit space with aisles on three sides. Also called a peninsula.

EPS –– (ENCAPSULATED POSTSCRIPT) A file format used to transfer Postscript image information from one program to another.

Erection — Assembling of exhibit properties. SEE I&D.

Est. Wt. — Estimated Weight.

Estimate — Approximate calculation of exhibit costs.

Etching — Inscribing lines of textures on the surface of rigid materials using acids or tools.

Ex “FROM.” — When used in pricing terms such as “Ex Factory” or “Ex Dock,” it signifies that the price quoted applies only at the point of origin (in the two examples, atthe seller’s factory or a dock at the import point). In practice, this kind of quotation indicates that the seller agrees to place the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the specified place within a fixed period of time.

Exchange Rate — The price of one currency in terms of another, i.e., the number of units of one currency that may be exchanged for one unit of another currency. ALSO KNOWN AS SPOT EXCHANGE.

Exclusive — Any agreement that limits the provision of services to a single vendor in an exposition or in a facility.

Exclusive Contractor — Contractor appointed by show or building management as the sole agent to provide services for an agreed compensation.

Exclusive Use — Rental of entire truck or van by one shipper.

Exhibit — A display used to convey a message. A specific tool of the communications medium of exhibiting. Also EXHIBIT BOOTH.

Exhibit Designer/Producer — Company responsible for designing and constructing exhibit booth.

Exhibit Directory — A program book for attendees listing exhibitors and exhibit booth locations.

Exhibit Hall — The area within an exposition center where exhibits are located.

Exhibit House –– Company that fabricates displays. SEE SHOP, DISPLAY BUILDER.

Exhibit Manager — Person in charge of a company’s exhibits program or an individual exhibit (as opposed to the show manager) that is in charge of the entire exposition.

Exhibit Prospectus — Promotional materials for prospective exhibitors to encourage participation.

Exhibition — Preferred term which refers to anevent at which products and services are displayed. ALSO KNOWN AS EXPOSITION, TRADE SHOW.

Exhibition Manager –– Preferred term foraperson responsible or all aspects of planning, promoting, and producing an exposition. Also known as show manager and show organizer. ALSO KNOWN AS EXPOSITION MANAGER, SHOW MANAGER

Exhibitor — One who displays in an exposition.

Exhibitor Advisory Committee (EAC) — Representatives of a show’s exhibiting companies who act as advisers to show management on rules and procedures, and also update show management on industry trends and issues.

Exhibitor-Appointed Contractors (EAC) — Service organizations appointed by the exhibitor, i.e., any company other than the designated “official” contractor providing a service to an exhibitor can refer to an I&D house, transportation company, AV company, furniture company, photographer, florist, or any other type of contractor. Also called INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR.

Exhibitor Lounge — An area either on or adjacent to the exhibit floor where exhibitors may relax or meet with customers. Show management sometimes provides special services in this area, such as translators for a show that has international attendees.


Exhibit Newsletter — A newsletter sent by show management to exhibitors prior to a show. It includes updates on deadlines, show rules and regulations, events, and marketing opportunities offered by show management plus educational articles to improve exhibitors’ effectiveness.

Exhibitor Prospectus — Direct mail piece sent to current and prospective exhibitors that promote benefits of exhibiting in a specific show. Compare ATTENDEE BROCHURE.

Exhibitor Retention — Persuading current exhibitors to participate in subsequent events. Exhibitor retention rate is the percentage of exhibitors that renew.

Exhibits Manager — See FLOOR MANAGER.

Expanded Metal — Sheets of metal cut and expanded to form an open mesh, usually used as decorative grill.

Expedited Service — Service offered by transportation company to assure prompt delivery.

Exploded View — Component parts of the whole in separate relation to each other.

Export — To send or transport goods out of one country for sale in another country. Ininternational sales, the exporter is usually the seller or the seller’s agent. Compare IMPORT.

Export Broker — An individual or firm that brings together buyers and sellers for a fee but does not take part in actual sales transactions.

Export License — A government document that permits the “Licensee” to engage in the export of designated goods to certain destinations. Lists of such goods are found in the comprehensive Export Schedules issued by the Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Export Management Company — A private firm that serves as the export department for several manufacturers, soliciting and transacting export business on behalf of its clients in return for a commission, salary, or retainer plus commission.

Exposition — Alternate term foran event at which products or services are exhibited. SEE EXHIBITION.

Exposition Manager — Alternate term for a person responsible or all aspects of planning, promoting, and producing an exposition. ALSO KNOWN AS SHOW MANAGER, OR SHOW ORGANIZER.

Exposition Rules — The regulations prepared by exposition management for a given event.

Extruded — To form metal or plastic, push out.

Extruded Aluminum –– Any of a variety of extruded metal “system” displays whose manufacturers include, but are not limited to, Octanorm, GEM, and MIS among others.

Extrusions — Products produced in continuous shapes by forcing materials under great pressure through dies; i.e., “T” molding channel, angle.

Eye Bolts –– Eye bolts or eye screws have a looped head or an opening in the head.


FHC — Notation on floor plans indicating the location of fire hose cabinets.

Fabrication — The building or construction of an exhibit display.


Facility Manager —The manager of a convention center or hall.

Facing –– Decorative trim, painted or applied.

Fade — Term used to describe transition from one scene to next by slowly darkening image, also called DISSOLVE.

Fascia — Panel at top of an exhibit, usually bearing company name.

Fastening Tool –– These are sometimes called nail guns and are powered by compressed air (pneumatic).

Featherrock — Material cut from volcanic lava in rough and varying sizes, looks exactly like heavy rock but is about one-fifth the weight; useful for decorative stone, veneers and dioramas.

Feedback — Term used to describe condition caused by return flow of electrical energy or sound.

Fiber Optics — 1. In displays, the use of cut glass fibers to display colored light. 2. In telephony, material used for carrying voice and data signals.

Fiberglass — A material fabricated from plastic resins and glass fiber. Available in rigid forms, translucent and opaque. Can also be custom fabricated in intricate shapes.

Field Services — Handling installation and dismantling, including freight, drayage, carpentry, electrical, plumbing, ironworkers, riggers, and maintenance.

Filler — Material used to fill pores of broad grained woods, as part of finishing process, particularly natural finish.

Filters –– Filters can be placed on intensity, color and beam, and focus the effect of light.

Finger Pull — Hinged finger grip usually mounted in recess on hinged doors.

Finished — Wooden articles that have passed the state of manufacture “in the white.” See IN THE WHITE (refers to wood that has been primed).

Fire Aisle –– Interior aisle in an exhibition floor plan used for emergency egress that must be kept clear of obstructions.


Fire Extinguisher –– Any agent used to extinguish fires such as water, sand, CO2, Halon, etc.

Fire Lane — An external vehicle lane that must be kept clear of obstruction to allow emergency egress.

Fire Retardant — Term used to describe a finish (usually liquid) that coats materials with a fire resistant cover. This does not render the material fireproof.

Fixed Jig — Permanent felt support mounted within shipping container.

Flame Proofed — Term used to describe material that is, or had been treated with a fire retardant.

Flange — That part of an extruded, formed or fabricated component that protrudes from the basic shape. Often used as mounting plate.

Flasher — Device to activate one or more lamps by intermittently interrupting current.

Flasher Button, Thermal — Flasher that is reacting to heat of electrical flow, built up heat, causing flasher to break current until cooled. These types cannot be programmed.

Flasher, Random — Several flashers acting in non-programmed fashion. Use may be restricted in show rules.

Flat Framed — 1′ x 2′, 1′ x 3′ or 1′ x 4′ mounted on flat surface, usually associated with banners or signs.

Float –– A large 4 wheel dolly with upright handle, can be manual or motorized.

Floater — Worker used by foreman to help assigned labor for short periods.

Flocking — An electrostatic spraying process producing a velvety finish on any surface.

Floor Load — Maximum amount of weight per square foot a floor can support. May also refer to the maximum amount of power available from floor outlets and ports.

Floor Manager — An individual (often an independent contractor ) representing show management, or the official contractor, who is responsible for the installation, dismantling, and operation of the exhibition area.

Floor Marking — Method of marking booth spaces in an empty exhibit hall to indicate where booths will be set.

Floor Order — Order for labor or services placed after exhibit setup begins. Usually more expensive than an ADVANCE ORDER.

Floor Plan — A map showing layout of exhibit spaces, lounges, concession areas, restrooms, electrical/plumbing accessibility, etc.

Floor Port — A utility box, recessed in the floor, containing electrical, telephone, and/or plumbing connections.

Flush Lock — Non-protruding locking device inserted flush with surface.

Flush Mounted — Mounting of one material to another with no space between them.

Foam Core — Paper exteriorsandwiching rigid foam often used for show signage.

Font — An alphabet of letters of one style or type. SEE TYPE FACE.

Food stuff / Edibles –– Imports are subject to sanitary/veterinary health certificates. Live animals/plants may be quarantined.

Force Majuere — The title of a standard clause in contracts exempting the parties for non-fulfillment of their obligations as a result of conditions beyond their control, such as earthquakes, floods or war.

Foreign Sales Agent — An individual or firm that serves as the foreign representative of a domestic supplier and seeks sales abroad for the supplier.

Foreman –– Supervisor of a group of workers whose duties will vary based upon the region of the country and the union affiliation.

Forklift, Forktruck — Vehicle used to transport heavy exhibit materials short distances and for loading and unloading materials. SEE HI LOW, TOW MOTOR, JEEP, OR REACH FORK LIFT.

Formica — A brand name for a plastic laminate.

For-Profit Show Management Company — A management company whose owners or stockholders share in its net proceeds. SEE INDEPENDENT SHOW ORGANIZER.

Four Hour Call — Under certain circumstances this is the minimum work period for which union labor must be paid. Not to be confused with minimum charges to exhibitors applied by contractors that service shows.




Free Standing — Self-supporting and independent exhibit material.

Free Trade Zone — A port designated by the government of a country for duty-free entry of any non-prohibited goods. Merchandise may be stored, displayed, used for manufacturing, etc., within the zone and re-exported without duties being paid. Duties are imposed on the merchandise (or items manufactured from the merchandise) only when the goods pass from the zone into an area of the country subject to the Customs Authority.

Freight — Exhibit properties, products, and other materials shipped for an exhibit.

Freight Contractor — The show –designated company responsible for handling exhibit properties from the dock to the exhibit space.

Freight Desk — At a show, the freight contractor’s service area for handling inbound and outbound exhibit materials.

Freight Forwarder — An independent business that handles shipments for

Compensation, either a local cartage or long haul carrier.

Freight Handling Form — Form for exhibitor requesting handling of materials. Not to be confused with long haul shipping forms, or bills of lading.

Fresnel — Theatrical Fixture with adjustable lens 150 W through 1500 W.

Frisket — Technique of applying lettering or art to surface of rigid material by tracing outline on translucent paper; affixing the paper to surface or materials, cutting away paper within lettering spaces and then spraying color over surface. When balance of paper is removed, the lettering remains.

Fumigation –– Required in some countries for live plants and wooden packing.

Furniture Dolly –– SEE FLOAT, CART


GATT — General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. A multilateral treaty whose purpose is to help reduce trade barriers between the signatory countries and to promote trade through tariff concessions.

GPX — Plastic coated plywood. ( Brand Name as produced by Georgia Pacific Plywood Corp.)

GST –– Goods and services taxes.

Gang Box — Nickname for a equipment box most contractors and some exhibitors carry that contains tools and supplies needed for the routine set up of trade show displays. See JOB BOX or TROUBLE BOX.

Gator Foam –– Laminated foam board used for signage, available in a variety of thicknesses. More rigid and durable than Foam Core.

Gauge — Where tariffs refer to gauge, they mean the U.S. Standard Gauge for determining thickness of sheet or plate steel; Browne & Sharpe Gauge for rod and sheets of aluminum, copper, brass and bronze; U.S. Steel Wire Gauge for iron, steel, and copper wire.

Gear Drive — Technique of transferring motion from motor shaft to object by use of one or more interlocking gears.

Gel — Theatrical color filter used in conjunction with theatrical projection fixtures and spotlights. Also referred to as GELATIN.

GEM –– (Greyhound Exhibit Module) Greyhound’s display units employing locking metal bars and flexible panels. SEE EXTRUDED ALUMINUM.


General Export Licenses? — Any of various export licenses covering export commodities for which VALIDATED EXPORT LICENSES are not required. No formal application or written authorization is needed to ship exports under a General Export License.

General Service Contractor — An organization that provides show management and exhibitors with a wide range of services, sometimes including, but not limited to, installation & dismantle (I&D), creating and hanging signage and banners, laying carpet, material handling , and providing booth furniture. ALSO KNOWN AS OFFICIAL CONTRACTOR. SOMETIMES REFERRED TO AS “DECORATOR”.

Genie Lift –– The manufacturer of a variety of lifts used in the erection of trade show displays. The first model manufactured was a hand-cranked material handling lift .ALSO REFERRED TO AS A HURTY GURTY. Genie now also manufactures motorized lifts that can be used as material lifts or man lifts.

Gerber –– Machine for cutting vinyl lettering used in making signs.

Glass Plate — Sheets of glass commonly available in thicknesses of 1/8″ 3/16″ or 1/4”.

Glass, Single Thick — One-eighth-inch-thick glass, such as is used for window panes.

Glass, Solar — Glass that has been treated to transmit light but reflect infrared solar rays.

Glass, Tempered — Hardened safety glass, usually plate.

Glass, Wire — Plate glass with embedded wire reinforcement.

Glossy — Common term for photographs reproduced on high gloss paper.

Glow Plug –– A lighted electric receptacle which glows when electricity is flowing through the line.

GOBO –– A special pattern made of metal or glass that can be installed into the aperture of a light source to project a pattern.

Good One Side — Grade of plywood whose face side is free of blemishes. SEE CDX.

Goose-necked light –– A small spot light with a flexible stem so that it can be pointed in the direction that light is most desired.

Graphics — Communicative elements—color, copy, art, photographs, translites, etc.—used to illustrate a booth theme or to enhance decor.

Greenfield –– Flexible metal conduit, used where code demands. Usually inter-changeable with MC cable, but does not come with wire installed in it. A/K/A FLEX

Grid System — Technique of providing system of structural supports, electrical conduit, etc., on a pattern of centers. Also used for ceilings.

Grievance — An employee’s or an employer’s dissatisfaction with some aspect of the employment relationship. May or may not be limited to dissatisfaction due to interpretation and application of the union contract.

Grommet — Rubber, metal or plastic element for reinforcing holes in weaker materials.

Gross Square Feet — Total space available in exhibit hall as compared to net square feet, which is usable exhibit space.

Gross Weight — The full weight of a shipment, including goods and packaging. Compare TARE WEIGHT.

Gusset — In construction, a triangular reinforcement or brace in corners of panels or framing.


HCEA (Health Care Exhibitors Association) — Trade association for firms exhibiting in health care and medical events.

Hall — A generic term for an exposition facility. May also refer to an individual area within a facility. For instance, one facility could have multiple halls.

Halon Fire Extinguisher –– A fire extinguisher generally used on computers and electronic fires. It should not hurt the computer or destroy silicon chips. It is classed as a hypo-thermal chemical fire extinguisher.

Hand Truck — A small, hand-propelled vehicle used for transporting small loads. SEE FLOAT.

Hard Card — 1. Work order for labor or services. 2. Material handling contractor’s record of materials received or shipped.

Hardwall — A type of exhibit construction in which the walls are of solid material, rather than fabric.

Hard wire ––Mechanical terminations of bare end wire to electrical equipment.

Harmonized System –– International commodity description and classification referencing system. Formerly known as SCHEDULE B.

Header — A sign or other structure across top of exhibit. Usually displays company name. SEE ID SIGN, LIGHT BAR.

Heel and toe –– To staple forming folds with sateen or other decorative material. A method of pleating.

High Drape –– High drape is any drape over 8’ high which requires special equipment. High drape is used to create dramatic areas such as stages or special focal points. Typically, high drape is dark blue velour and is 16’ to 19’ high, although vinyl or 11’ banjo drape in blue and other colors is often used. All high drape needs to be anchored securely on its framework to ensure it cannot fall.

High Jacker — A manufacturer of equipment capable of lifting a person or persons to a given height. Ahigh lift or ladder generally used in focusing lights or adjusting rigging. ALSO KNOWN AS CHERRY PICKER, JLG, SCISSORS LIFT, GENIE LIFT.


Hire — International term referring to “rent” a service or product.

Hold Harmless Clauses — Contract clauses that attempt to limit the liability of one party in case of a claim.

Hologram — A photographic effect using lasers to obtain a three dimensional image on a flat surface.

Horizontal Show — A show in which the products or services being displayed represent all segments of an industry or profession. Compare VERTICAL SHOW.

Hospitality Suite/Event — An event in the United States, usually separate from the exhibit, in which refreshments are served and exhibitor personnel and visitors socialize. Most shows require hospitality events to be opened only after exhibit hours.

Hotel Show — An exposition held in the exhibit space or ballroom of a hotel.

Hurty Gurty –– SEE GENIE LIFT.


I&D — Installation and dismantle of an exhibit (set-up/teardown).

IAAM — International Association of Assembly Managers. The association of facility managers for venues which house conventions, meetings, exhibitions, concerts and other assemblies.

IACVB — International Association of Convention & Visitors Bureaus. The association for service bureaus which are the chief sales agents for the convention and tourism industry to the municipality they service.

IAEM (International Association for Exhibition Management) — Trade association for exposition producers.

IATSE International Alliance of Theactrical Stage Employees, Moving Picture Technicians, Artists and Allied Crafts of the United States, its Territories and Canada, (SEE STAGEHANDS)

IBEW – (International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers). Electrical unions providing skilled craftsmen whom have completed a 5-year apprenticeship in classroom and on the job training (OJT) in the electrical industry.

ICC — Interstate Commerce Commission. The Federal agency that regulates interstate commerce, including the trucking industry.

Illuminations —SEE LIGHTS.

Illusion Mirror — Generally translucent mirror, which reflects when confronted with light source and is transparent when rear illuminated. Also known as CHINESE MIRROR or ONE WAY MIRROR.

Import — To bring foreign goods into a country. Compare EXPORT.

Import License — A document required and issued by some national governments authorizing the importation of goods into their individual countries.

Independent Contractor —1. A contractor hired by an exhibitor to perform show services independent of show management-appointed contractors. ALSO CALLED EXHIBITOR-APPOINTED CONTRACTOR (EAC). 2. Any individual or company hired to perform show services on a contract basis.

Independent Show Management Company — A for-profit show management company.

Independent Union — Labor union not affiliated with organizations such as Congress of Industrial Organizations for American Federation of Labor.

Infringement — Use of floor space outside exclusive booth area.

Inherent Vice — An insurance term referring to any defect or other characteristic of a product that could result in damage to the product without external cause. For example, instability in a chemical that could cause it to explode spontaneously. Insurance policies may specifically exclude losses caused by inherent vice.

Inland Bill of Lading — A bill of lading used in transporting goods overland to the exporter’s international carrier. Although a through bill of lading can sometimes be used, it is usually necessary to prepare both an inland bill of lading and an ocean bill of lading for export shipments. Compare AIR WAYBILL, BILL OF LADING, OCEAN BILL OF LADING, THROUGH BILL OF LADING.

Inline Booth — Exhibit space with exhibit booths on either side and/ or back.

Injection Modeling — Method of protecting exhibit properties.

Inquiry Cards — Forms, collected from attendees, used to request information about exhibitors. ALSO KNOWN AS LEADS.

INS ­­ ––Marks chalked on the floor showing where drapes are to be hung.

Inserts — 1.Interchangeable panels of copy or art.. 2. Advertising flyer used by show organizers and/or exhibitors. Usually tipped-in (affixed with glue) or blown-in (inserted loose) to trade publications as an advertisement.

Inside Booth —Also known as an INLINE BOOTH.

Installation — Setting up an exhibit material to prescribed set-up instructions and drawings.

Installation & Dismantle — Also referred to as I&D. The set-up and teardown of exhibits.

Installer –– Skilled labor used to set up displays at trade shows. The union affiliation of the installer will vary based upon the locale and the facility in question.

Interactive Exhibits — Exhibits in which the visitor is involved with the exhibit in a proactive way.

Interactive Video — Exhibits in which the visitor is involved with the video in a proactive way.

Internegative — Film negative of motion picture made from original raw negative to facilitate making of positive copies in quantity.

International Freight Forwarder — See FREIGHT FORWARDER.

International Sales Agent — An individual or firm that serves as the foreign representative of a domestic supplier and seeks sales abroad for the supplier. SeeAGENT, FOREIGN SALES AGENT.

In the Rough — Wooden articles that are not further manufactured than sawn, hewn, planed, bent or turned.

In the White — Wooden articles that are further manufactured than “in the rough,” but do not include more than one coat of priming.

Inventory — Total amount of furniture and equipment available for show. SEE USEAGE.

Iris –– A device used to alter the size of the beam of light, usually with an aperture near the gate of the fixture.

Island Exhibit — A three-dimensional display exposed to aisles on all four sides.

Isometric — A perspective-like drawing, except that all lengths have the same proportion.


Jacobs Ladder — A series of horizontal panels held together with a vinyl bank. These panels flip to expose the opposite side when top horizontal panel is mechanically turned.

Jewel Light — Colored plastic or glass insert used in front of light source in panel faces to identify, pinpoint, etc., areas.

Jig — Shop or bench setup for making repetitive assemblies.

Jigging — Special dividers, sectioning and protective padding inside exhibit crates.

Jigsaw — Narrow blade set in a frame used with a vertical motion for cutting along wavy or irregular lines.

Job Foreman — One who is in charge of specific projects.

Johnson Bar — Long-handled wooden pry bar with metal tip and wheels used in freight handling. Also known as a J-bar.

Jointing — Technique of rendering lumber surfaces perfectly straight and smooth so asto permit a perfect fit. This operation is usually performed on continuous automatic machine called a Jointer.

Jones Plug — Theatrical term for multi-prong electrical disconnect.

Journeyman — Worker who has satisfactorily completed an apprenticeship in a skilled trade.

Junction Box –– Approved enclosure where electrical splices are made.


1. The jobs that may be performed by a specific labor union.
2. The locality where a contractual dispute is decided.


KD (Knockdown) — Exhibit or display components requiring on-site assembly.

Kelvin Temperature — Refers to the temperature at which a light source would be in order to produce the color of light it emits.

Kick Base (Toe Base) — Base molding or band added to structure to absorb marring caused by brooms, mops, etc.

Kiosk — A small free-standing structure, open to one or more sides, used within an exhibit for the display of printed or electronic information.


Klieg Light— A powerful carbon-arc lamp producing an intense light, invented by the Kleigl brothers, American lighting experts.

Kodalith — Type of film.

Kraft Paper — Inexpensive brown wrapping paper.

Kronoflex — An inexpensive transparent or colored transparency.


L&D — Loss and Damage.

LA — Letter of Authority.

LCL — Less Than Carload.

Labor — For shows, refers to contracted workers who perform services. Also INSTALLERS.

Labor Call — 1. A method of securing union employees. 2. Time specified for labor to report.

Labor Desk — The location in an exhibit hall where exhibitors can order labor.

Labor Form — Form used by exhibitors requesting labor at exhibition.

Laborer — See INSTALLERS.

Lacquer Finish — Coating sprayed on wood, metal and other materials, pigment colored or clear, that is durable and washable. Composition of coating includes primarily a water soluble solution.

Lamination — The bonding under pressure of two or more materials to form a layer or sandwich of materials; i.e., plywood,, plastic laminate

Landscape — Sign where width measurement (horizontal line) is larger than height. Also known as HORIZONTAL.

Lap Joint — Joint in construction achieved by overlapping ends of lumber for greater strength than simple butt joint.

Laser Disc — A medium for holding an image. Can be randomly accessed on a disc player, allowing interactive exhibits. See also DVD.

Lazy Susan — Manually rotated tray on ball bearings. Better known as TURNTABLES.

Leadman — Employee who sets the pace for a group working on the same job or as a team. Also known as LEADS, AND LEADPERSONS.

Lead Retrieval — A system for capturing and follow up of leads generated at an exposition.

Lead Tracking — A system for follow-up of leads generated at an exposition.

Lectern — A reading stand with a slanted top. A lectern that stands on the floor is a PODIUM.

Less than Truckload (LTL) — Rates applicable when the quantity of freight is less than the volume of truckload minimum weight.

Letrasign — Trade name for self-adhesive vinyl letter.

Letter of Credit (L/C) — A document, issued by a bank per instructions by a buyer of goods, authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms, usually the receipt by the bank of certain documents within a given time.

Liability — Legal definition of the person or persons responsible for damage or injuries.

Licensing — A business arrangement in which the manufacturer of a product (or a firm with proprietary rights over certain technology, trademarks, etc.) grants permission to some other group or individual to manufacture that product (or make use of that proprietary material) in return for specified royalties or other payment.

Lighting Truss — A construction of tubular steel or aluminum alloy onto which lighting instruments are hung and which is in turn suspended above the stage or exhibit.

Light Bar – A bar with a light that hangs behind a header.

Light Box — Enclosure with lighting and translucent face of plastic or glass.

Lighting Plot –– A print showing the location and type of all lights used in a booth.

Linear Display — Linear exhibits are generally 10’ deep. They are offered in 10’ or 15’ widths and can be combined to create an exhibit of almost any length.

Line Art — Term for artwork composed of lines only with no tone.

Line Switch —SEE SWITCH

Literature Rack — Devices used to hold literature or brochures. Also Lit Rack.

Loading Dock — An area on premises where goods are and shipped.

Loadlock — A metal brace to secure partial loads within trailers and railway cars.

Local — Organization of employees in one area or in one company or a group of companies, chartered by and affiliated with a national or international union. SEE UNION.

Lock Up — A secure storage area within an exposition facility.

Logo — A trademark, unique to each particular company.

Loop Fabric — Fabric to which Velcro fastener fabric will adhere.

Loop Projector — Projector modified to run film that has been spliced into continuous loop.

Loose Jig — Removable support in shipping case.

Low Voltage —An electromotive force rated 24 volts nominal or less, supplied from a transformer, converter, or battery.

Lowboy — A type of truck that can be adapted for picking up loads at ground level.

LTL –– See Less than Truckload.

Lucite — Term defining plastic similar to Plexiglas, an acrylic plastic.

Lumiline — Slim, cylindrical, incandescent lamp; used as substitute for fluorescent lamps where dimming is required.






Marine Insurance — Broadly, insurance covering loss or damage of goods at sea. Marine insurance will typically compensate the owner of merchandise for losses sustained from fire, shipwreck, piracy, and various other causes, but excludes losses that can be legally recovered from the carrier. Compare CREDIT RISK INSURANCE.

Marshalling Area — An area set-aside for the arranging of buses or trucks prior to the beginning of operations. Also known as marshalling yard.

Mask — To cover for painting or protection.

Masking Drape — A cloth used to cover storage or other unsightly areas.

Material Handling –– Services performed by General Service Contractor that includes delivery of exhibit materials from the dock to assigned space, removing empty crates, returning crates at end of show for re-crating, and delivering materials back to dock for carrier loading. It is a two-way charge, incoming and outgoing. FORMERLY KNOWN AS DRAYAGE.

Masonite — A trade name for commercial hardboard.

Matte — Lusterless surface.

MC Cable –– Flexible armored electrical cable accepted as insulated by most codes; two, three, or more wires available. Also known as AC Cable, or BX Cable.

Measurement Ton — A space measurement, usually 40 cubic feet or one cubic meter. The cargo is assessed a certain rate for every 40 cubic feet of space it occupies. Also known as the Cargo Ton or Freight Ton.

Mediation — Third-party attempt to reconcile the differences between disputing parties by finding some middle ground on which the controversy may be voluntarily settled. Similar to conciliation, but a mediator does not take an active part in discussions as a conciliator does.

Meter — The most common width for a backwall panel for any of the extruded systems. (1 meter = 39.37 inches).

Micarta — Trade name for plastic laminate.

Micro-Switch — A miniature switch opened and closed mechanically.

Minimum Call — Agreed upon minimum number of hours of work to be done by a worker under the labor agreement. In cases where the work to be done is shorter than the minimum call, the worker is guaranteed payment for the full minimum.

Minny — A van shipment weighing 500 pounds or less, for which the minimum charge is the 500 pound rate.

Mitre — The joint created when two pieces of material cut at equal angles butt together to form a comer.

Mobile — An art form suspended or balanced with freedom of movement.

Mock-Up — A full-scale model of proposed structure.

Model — An object made in miniature representing something to be made.

Models — A person stationed in an exhibit to demonstrate a product, provide attraction to booth or greet visitors. (Note: This term is falling into disuse.) See TALENT.

Modular — Structural elements that are interchangeable. Maximum flexibility in arrangement and size.

Module — A repeating element within an exhibit.

Mold — A material suitable for shaping anything in a fluid or plastic condition.

Mom-and-Pop — A small, family-owned. business

Move-In — Dates set for installation. ALSO KNOWN AS SET-UP.

Move-Out — Dates set for dismantling. ALSO KNOWN AS TEAR DOWN.

Multi-Purpose Facility — 1. A facility that can be reconfigured for another use. 2.Abuilding complex containing several different types of facilities, such as a convention center, arena, and theater.

Multimedia — Combining two or more types of audio/visual support in presentation.

Multiple-Story Exhibit — See DOUBLE-DECKER.

Music License — Control of the performance of musical compositions by the composers and authors through granting of a license to perform. Controlled by the copyright laws. SEE ASCAP, AND BMI

Muslin — Wide-loomed fabric used for ceiling artwork.

Mylar — A trade name for thin plastic material in sheets or tape, translucent and opaque.


NFPA – National Fire Protection Act.

NMFC — National Motor Freight Classifications.

NOS — Not Otherwise Specified.

National Electrical Code — A code issued by the National Fire Protection Association describing minimum wiring requirements on electrical installations. It includes sections on temporary installations (such as construction sites and trade shows), theatrical installations, as well as office, kitchen, and storage areas. The code does not carry the force of law unless adopted by the authority having jurisdiction.

National Labor Relations Act —The act covers the legal requirements that must be met by employers and labor organizations.

National Union — Union having membership only within the United States.

Naugahyde — A synthetic, leather-like material.

Negative — A reverse print.

Neoprene — A rubberlike material.

Nesting — Multiple objects fitting together in order to conserve space and improve safety for shipping or storage

Net Square Footage — The amount of space occupied by exhibits in a facility, not including aisles, columns, registration areas, etc.

Nomenclature of the Customs Cooperation Council — The customs tariff used by many countries worldwide, including most European nations, but not the United States. It is also known as the Brussels Tariff Nomenclature. Compare STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION or STANDARD INTERNATIONAL TRADE CLASSIFICATION.


O/A — Open Account.

O/N — Order Notify.

OR — Owner’s Risk.

OS&D — Over, Short and Damage.

OT —On Truck or Railway.

Ocean Bill of Lading — A bill of lading (B/L) indicating that the exporter consigns a shipment to an international carrier for transportation to a specified foreign market. Unlike an inland B/L, the ocean B/L also serves as a collection document. If it is a “Straight B/L,” the foreign buyer can obtain the shipment from the carrier by simply showing proof of identity. If a “Negotiable B/L” is used, the buyer must first pay for the goods, post a bond, or meet other conditions agreeable to the seller. Compare AIR WAYBILL, INLAND BILL OF LADING, THROUGH BILL OF LADING.

Official Contractors — Service organizations appointed by exhibition management. Also GENERAL CONTRACTORS.

On-Center — Refers to measurement of space from center of a solid object (such as a COLUMN) to another point.

On-Site — Location of exhibits or project. Also called AT-SITE.

On-Site Order — Floor order placed at show site.

One Shot — 1. Type of paint used for painting banners. 2. Exhibit or display fabricated for one use only.

One Ten/Sixty — Common term describing normally available current in North American Continent. The full expression is 110 volt/60 cycle. Many European and South American areas have 220 volt/50-cycle power only.

Open Insurance Policy — A marine insurance policy that applies to all shipments made by an exporter over a period of time rather than to one shipment only.

Open Shop — 1. Generally refers to states that are right to work states. 2.Company in which union membership is not a condition of employment.

OT Labor — Work performed on overtime billed at either time-and-one-half or twice the published labor rates.

Outsource — To subcontract a task or responsibility to a supplier.

OTR – Over the Road. Freight that moves on the road, typically shipped directly to the convention center.

Overlay — A panel mounted to another surface.

Overtime —1. Time worked by an employee outside of, or in addition to, regular working time or beyond the legal maximum hours of work. 2. Rate charged at one and one-half times or two times the straight time rate for work performed outside of the normal work hours.


PAR — 1. Common term for sealed beam spot or flood lamp with self-contained lens surfaced glass. 2. One less than bogey.

Par Lamp –– A lamp shaped like an automobile headlight that consists of a tungsten source housed in an enclosed lens, which produces a rectangular beam.

Per Diem. ––– Per Day.

Package — 1. Can also refer to a single-fee booth package, offered by show management. A package might include booth space, one electrical outlet, one table, two chairs, and one hour of labor.

Package Plan — Management providing furniture and/or services to exhibitors for a single fee.

Packing Case — See SHIPPING CASE, CRATE.

Packing Drawing — A visual to supplement written instruction.

Packing List — A list showing the number and kinds of items being shipped, as well as other information needed for transportation purposes.

Pad Wrap — See BLANKET WRAP.

Padded Van — Describes vehicle used for uncrated shipments.

Padding — Usually blanket protection for uncrated material.

Painters — Laborers who are responsible for sign painting and graphics. May also have other duties depending upon union jurisdiction and agreements.

Pallet — See SKID.

Pallet Wrap ––– Process of wrapping loose items on pallet with transparent plastic wrapping.

Panel System — A prefabricated exhibit composed of connected panels of various sizes and shapes

Parallax — Illusion of opacity resulting from the juxtaposition of translucent or polarized surfaces. Also achieved when rows of panels or fins are spaced in such a way as to be seen through when viewed directly, but that appear to be opaque when viewed from an angle.

Particle Board — A structural panel of compressed glued wood chips.

Paste-Up — A mounted assembly of graphics prior to reproduction.

Pavilion —1. A group presentation of different companies for the purpose of generating collected impact. 2. Temporary structure for housing exhibits.

Pedestal — A floor support for an exhibit component.

Peg Board — Trade name for perforated hardboard. Available with holes on various centers.

Pegged Off — An object mounted away from supporting surface with spacers. BETTER KNOWN AS STAND OFF.

Peninsula — An exhibit or area with aisles on three sides.

Perimeter Booth — Exhibit space located on an outside wall of an exhibit hall.

Permanent Exhibit — A product display held on a long-term basis, e.g., mart exhibit, museum exhibit, office exhibit, lobby exhibit, and the like.

Permanent Import –– In case of sales, with payment of duties and VAT, or in case of free distribution, disposable or consumables usually exempted from payment of duties and VAT depending on each country. Quantity and value exempted at discretion of Customs authorities.

Permit Card — Temporary work permitcard granting temporary employment rights.

Phosphorescent Paint — Radiates visibly when activated by ultraviolet light.

Photo Screen — A stencil made photographically for silk screen reproduction.

Photostats — A reproductive process employing paper negatives.

Phytosanitary Inspection Certificate — A certificate, issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, to satisfy import regulations of foreign countries, indicating that a U.S. shipment has been inspected and is free from harmful pests and plant diseases.

Piano Hinge — Continuous fixed pin hinge.

Pier Demurrage –– A charge assessed when the container is removed from the carrier’s control and is not returned within the allowable free time. SEE CONTAINER DETENTION.

Pipe and Drape — Pipe material with fabric draped from it to make up side RAILS and BACKWALL of a trade show.

Pixie Tubes — Special high intensity lamps with internal circuits and filaments in shape of numerals.

Plan — A top view mechanical drawing.

Plastic Laminate — Any one of several of the melamine plastics bonded to paneling for durability and appearance.

Plating — A decorative and protective metal finish.

Plexiglas — A trade name for acrylic plastic material in common use.

Plumbers — Trades person responsible for all plumbing installation.

Plywood — Laminated wood of an odd number of sheets glued together. Often used in exhibit construction.

Podium — A reading stand for making presentations.

Point of Purchase Display (POP) — An aid to retail selling. Used to promote or identify products at their point-of-sale.


Pop – Ups. ––– Lightweight displays normally shipped in molded plastic crates. ALSO KNOWN AS PORTABLE EXHIBITS.

Portable Exhibits — Lightweight displays normally shipped in molded plastic crates. ALSO KNOWN AS POP-UPS.

Porters — Laborers who perform sweeping, cleaning, and dusting.

Portrait — Sign where height measurement (vertical line) is greater than width measurement. OPPOSITE OF LANDSCAPE.

Positive Prints — A reproduction similar to the original.

Poster Board — A stiff-weight art board usually used for printing and/or presentations.

Poster Session — An area set aside with poster boards on which presenters can mount information about their research or other projects and explain their work to those who stop. A cross between the meeting and trade show formats of presenting information.

Power of Attorney — A document that allows another person to act legally on your behalf in your absence.

Power Strip — A cord connected unit having multiple electrical outlets, and over current protection.

Prefab — Pre-built exhibit ready for installation.

Pre-finished Paneling — Factory finished panels.

Premium Pay –– SEE OVERTIME (O/T)

Pre-pleated — Material permanently pleated, ready for installation.

Presenters — Trained individuals stationed in a booth to present a scripted promotional message.

Press Kit — Materials, usually contained in a folder, in which news releases, product announcements, and other materials intended for the media are distributed.

Press Release — An article intended for use by the media about a company, product, service, individual, or show.

Press Room — A room where members of the media may obtain exhibitor press kits, conduct interviews, or relax. Larger pressrooms contain typewriters, computers, telephones, and fax machines for use by the press in filing their stories.

Priority Rating System — Method of assigning booth space.

Prismatic Glass (or Prismatic Plastic) — Material that is textured with a multitude of tiny facets that refract and diffuse light.

Producer, Exhibit — An individual or company that designs and/or builds exhibits. May also provide other services. ALSO KNOWN AS BUILDER.

Producer, Show — An individual or company that manages trade shows; leases exhibit facility, hires official contractors, and promotes events.

Pro Forma Invoice — An invoice provided by a supplier prior to the shipment of merchandise, informing the buyer of the kinds and quantities of goods to be sent, their value, and important specifications (weight, size, etc.).

Prohibited Cargo –– Goods restricted by international convention. Also refers to drugs, weapons and ammunitions.

Pro-Number — Shipment number designated by the common carrier to a single shipment, used in all cases where the shipment must be referred. Usually assigned at once.

Proof — Any preliminary reproduction by photography, typesetting or lithography, provided by processor for approval prior to finished product.

Proposal — To put forth an idea, design or concept for consideration or acceptance.

Proscenium Arch — Theatrical expression for visible opening that frames stage. Alsovisible opening that frames DIORAMA.

Public Show — One where general public is invited to attend and an admission fee is usually charged.

Purchasing Agent — One who purchases goods in his/her own country on behalf of foreign importers such as government agencies and large private concerns.

Pylon — A tall exhibit structure normally used for identification.


Quad Box — Four electrical outlets in one box.

Qualifying — The act of determining an exhibit visitor’s authority to purchase a product or service on display.

Quota — The quantity of goods of a specific kind that a country will permit to be imported without restriction or imposition of additional duties.

Quotation — An offer to sell goods at a stated price and under specified conditions.


RFP (Request for Proposal) — A request for a description of work to be performed, products and services to be supplied, and bids for a project.

ROI (Return-On-Investment) — Measurement of benefit an exhibiting company receives from participation of an exhibition. Broadest example formula: income minus costs equals ROI.

ROO (Return on Objectives) — Measurement of benefit an exhibiting company receives for participation at an exhibition by company pre-set objectives to show success.

RS or L — Classes the Same or Lower.

Rabbet — A saw cut used in the fabrication of wood parts.

Raceway –– An enclosed channel of metal or non-metallic materials designed expressly for holding wires or cables.

Radius Mark — Internal and external marks left on acrylic after improper or inadequate bending.

Rail — A low divider between exhibit spaces..

Raised Letters — Lettering cut out of any material and applied or mounted to a surface or background for dimensional effects.

Rank and File — The membership of a union other than officers and officials.

Rate of Exchange –– The rate of currency exchange established daily as the buying rate of foreign currency by the Federal Reserve Bank. The daily rate is used only when it varies by more than 5 per cent from the quarterly rate. When applicable, the daily rate is the rate certified on the day of exportation.

Raw Film — Condition of motion picture film after printing process but before surface has been treated.

Rear Illuminated — Technique of lighting color transparency or adlux from rear.

Rear Projection — Movie, slide, or computer image presentation where the screen is between the viewer and the projector.

Recall — Requiring employee to return to work after he or she has left for the day (or night).

Reception — Stand-up social function with food and beverages.

Refraction — The change of direction of a light ray passing from one medium to another of different density.

Refurbish — To repair damage, renew surfaces, and replace graphics, as necessary, to recondition an exhibit, extending its life span.

Registration — The process of obtaining information from an event’s participants, including name, company affiliation and address, plus any other information that is requested by show management.

Registration Area — Designated area, usually outside the exhibit hall or meeting room, where exhibitors and attendees are badged.

Regional Show — A show targeted to attendees from a specific geographical area. May be a stand-alone event, or a regional version of a national show.

Reinforced Vinyl — Covered cord, wall coverings, or upholstery materials. Vinyl laminated with fabric. Generally used for banners.

Relay — Electrical device used to interrupt or sustain flow of current. Commonly used in low-voltage systems for programmed effects.

Release Forms — Documents provided by management to permit removal of goods from exhibition during show hours. MORE COMMONLY REFERRED TO AS PROPERTY PASSES.

Released Value –– Limit of carrier’s liability.

Remote Ballast — Removal of ballast from fluorescent fixtures to a separate or remote location, to allow for extremely limited space.

Rental Booth — Complete booth package offered to exhibitors on a rental basis.

Return — Common term applied to panel joined to background at 90-degree angle.

Reverse Prints — Dark or black field with white line art or copy.

Rheostat — A device for regulating strength of an electric current by varying the resistance. Also called a dimmer.

Rib — A framing member, usually termed in circular forms.

Rigger —1. Responsible for machinery uncrating, unskidding, positioning, leveling, and reskidding. 2. Skilled labor responsible for attaching signs, banners, truss, and other equipment to ceiling of exhibit hall.

Right-to-Work State — A state where joining a union is not a condition of employment.

Rim Drive — A turntable operated from its edge rather than the center for heavier or off-center loads.

Riser — A platform to elevate people or product.

Room Capacity — The maximum number of people allowed in any given area.

Room Set-Up — The layout of tables, chairs, other furniture, and equipment for functions.

Rough Sketch — Quick drawing giving indications of proposed exhibit.

Round — A banquet table, usually 60 inches in diameter; also available in 66- and 72‑inch diameters.

Router — A high-speed cutting tool for shaping, gouging, scooping, hollowing out.,etc.



SISO (Society of Independent Show Organizers) — Trade association for independent exposition producers.

SlT — Stopping In Transit.


SL&C — Shipper’s Load and Count.?

Sand Blasting — Technique of etching smooth surface of glass, plastic or metal to achieve matte or textured quality.

Sandwiching — Mounting of transparent subject matter between one translucent and one clear plastic panel.

Sateen – Fabric used in special draping or bunting.

Satin Finish — Smooth semigloss finish, usually a metal or lacquered surface.

Scale Model — Any model articulating all components of original object, but in smaller size.

Scene in Action — Term for mechanical animation technique that achieves simulated flow motion by rotating striped cylindrical acetate drum between light source and face artwork. SEE GOBO’S ? ASK GEARNS

Schematic Model — A diagram of an object in model form.

Schoolroom Set-Up — SEE CLASSROOM

Scooter — Electrical cart used for driving around the show floor.

Screen Enamel — For silkscreen printing on nonporous surfaces.

Screw Post — SEE T-NUT — Technique of fitting prefabricated unit into existing site condition by cutting prefabricated unit slightly to allow perfect fit.

Scribe Line — Shallow groove incised into face of material.

Scrim — Theatrical term for fabric that is opaque when lighted from front and transparent when illuminated from the rear.

Sealing — Technique of applying sealer coat to porous woods prior to painting procedure. Prevents absorption of final paint finish.

Second Option — Second place on a waiting list. The organization holding the second option for specific dates of a facility, for example, may book those dates only if the organization holding the first option decides not to book.

Second Tier — A city where the space limitations of the convention center, the hotels, or both, make the city more appropriate for smaller meetings and shows.

Security Cages — Wire enclosures supplied to exhibitors to lock up materials for safe storage.

Security Contractor — Company hired by exhibit or show management to keep individual exhibits and the entire show floor safe using guards, closed-circuit TV, etc.

Self-Contained Exhibit — A display that has its shipping case an integral part of of its design.

Self-Tapping Screw — Screw used to attach material to metal with predrilled hole. Asscrew is rotated, it threads into hole and remains secure.

Sepia — Printed reproduction of black and white art tinted in brown tones, which imparts an antique look.

Service Desk — A central location to order or reconfirm the functions provided by general service contractor or exposition management

Service Kit — Packet for exhibitor containing information and forms relating to the exhibition. SEE EXHIBITOR MANUAL.

Set Screw — Threaded machine screw with flush head normally used to adjust tension or tighten movable parts on shafts.

Set-Up — The function of erecting the displays, installation, or articles in their assembled condition.

Set-Up Drawing — The plans from which the exhibit components are assembled.

Set-Up Personnel — Exhibit installers.

Shadow Box — Five-sided enclosure with face open for display of art or object; aniche.

Sheetrock — Material used in drywall construction composed of gypsum core and paper veneer. Standard measurements: 4′ x 8′, 4′ x 10′, thicknesses 3/8″, 1/2″, 5/8″. ALSO KNOWN AS DRYWALL.

Shell Scheme — A standardized hardwall exhibit system that is offered as part of the space package for exhibitors

Shiplap — Construction technique of joining two materials by notching both and inserting slots into each other.

Shipment — Freight tendered to a carrier by one consignor at one place at one time for delivery to one consignee at one place on one bill of lading.

Shipper — Company or individual to who exhibit materials are consigned for transportation.

Shipper’s Export Declaration — A form required for all shipments by the U.S. Treasury Department and prepared by a shipper, indicating the value, weight, destination, and other basic information about an export shipment.

Shipping Case — A container for exhibit components suitable for extended reuse,

Shipping Crate — A container for exhibit components. Usually with screwed or nailed lid. SEE CRATE.

Ship’s Manifest — An instrument in writing, signed by the captain of a ship that lists the individual shipments constituting the ship’s cargo.

S-Hook — Type of metal hanging hardware in form of the letter “S”, used as hanger for identification signs, plaques, etc.

Shop — Primarily refers to display builder, also refers tocontractor’s main office and warehouse.

Shop Steward — Person designated by the union within a shop or unit to represent employees.

Show Break — Time of show closing when dismantling begins. ALSO KNOWN AS SHOW CLOSE.

Show Daily — A newspaper published each day during the run of a show. It includes articles about the exhibit and events.


Show Directory — A softcover book containing a listing, with booth numbers, of all the exhibitors in a show, a map showing booth locations, and (often) advertising. ALSO KNOWN AS SHOW BOOK.

Show Manager — The organizer and/or operator of an exhibition.

Show Office —Show Management Office at exhibition.

Show Photographer — Official photographer for exhibition appointed by show manager.

Show Producer — Company or individual who initiates and plans an event, is responsible for renting a site and for soliciting exhibitors. See EXPOSITION MANAGER.

Show Rates ––- Rates established by show management, official service contractors and/or other official service providers, and published in the Exhibitor Kit.

Show Rules — The general rules and regulations governing a specific trade show.

Show-Within-A-Show —A show with its own name and focus that takes place within a larger, related event.

Showcase — General term for glazed or framed enclosure for display of objects.

Shrink Wrap —SEE PALLET WRAP..

Side Rail — A low divider panel used to separate an exhibit space from an adjacent area.

Sign Holder — Stand for displaying signs.

Sign Hook — Piece of S-shaped metal for hanging signs. ALSO KNOWN AS S-HOOK.

Silk Screen — A printing stencil used for reproducing one or more times on a variety of materials.

Sintra ––- PVC Panel, same as Chydex, Chomatex, used in signs and displays.

SISO (Society of Independent Show Organizers) –– An organization of independent trade show producers whose membership produces over 3000 events annually all over the world.

SJ Cord — Rubberized cable commonly used as a flexible lead to electrical devices,, or where conduit or Greenfield are not practical. A/KA. SO CORD.

Sketch Model — A three-dimensional sketch.

Skid — Wooden platform used to support machinery or a collection of objects for easier handling. Also thick wood blocks attached to crates that allow forklift access for easier handling. Also called PALLET

Skids — Wood runners protecting the exterior of a shipping case.

Skin — A tracing of a sketch with explanatory notes.

Skin Drawing — Preliminary elevation and plan indicating overall dimensions.

Skirting — Decorative covering around tables and risers.

Sleeper — Leveling strip on which flooring or horizontal panels are fixed.

Slider — Telescopic pipe.

Smokers — Ashtrays on stands.

Snorkel ––- SEE BOOM

Society of Independent Show Organizers –– SEE SISO.

Soffit — A lowered portion of a ceiling.

Solarized — An overexposed photographic print, purposely done for artistic effect.

Solid Surface. ­­-–– Material used in display fabrication that is the same all the way through eg. Corion, fountainhead, so it can be sanded and repaired.

Soss Hinge — Trade name for concealed barrel-shaped hinge installed in recess of cabinet doors and jambs to eliminate revealed hinge.

Sound Mix — Procedure of combining independently recorded narration, music and/or sound effect on to single master tape or film, while at the same time establishing tone, volume and balance between elements.

Space Rate — Cost per square foot for exhibit space.

Spade Connectors — Fork shaped metal connectors soldered, or crimped, to wire ends for connection to terminals having machine screw or knurled nut contacts.

Special Handling — Applies to display shipments that require extra labor, equipment, or time in delivery to booth area.

Specialty Contractor — A supplier of a specific show service, such as photography, rental of furniture or audio/visual equipment, or floral decoration.

Spinning –– Technique for working sheet metal into concave or convex shapes.

Splice —The twisting together of two or more electrical wires to provide continuous power, housed inside an approved junction box.

Spline — Thin metal or wood strip glued into grooves, cut in panel edges to reinforce joint between panels.

Sponsorship — Payment of the cost of a service or activity at an event, in exchange for being publicized at the event.

Spot Exchange The exchange rate for foreign currency for immediate purchase/delivery. SEE EXCHANGE RATE.

Spot Light — A lamp providing controlled circle of light.

Squeeze Connector — Fitting used to secure SJ-type cords to plugs and splice boxes.

Stagehands Labor for all theactrical presentations. Depending on geographical jurisdiction, handles all facets of trade show installation including but not limited to rigging, carpeting and drapery, display and exhibit booth installation and maintenance, and handling of electrical and audio/visual equipment. MEMBER OF IATSE.

Staging Area — 1. A place for demonstration. 2. A preparation area, usually on premises, where suppliers review orders and organize items before delivering them to exhibit booths. 3. An area adjacent to the dock where freight trucks wait until they may unload.

Stanchions — Upright posts used to support signage; also support ropes that prevent entry.

Stand — European term for booth.

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) — A standard numerical code system used by the U.S. Government to classify products and services. Compare NOMENCLATURE OF THE CUSTOMS COOPERATION COUNCIL, STANDARD INTERNATIONAL TRADE CLASSIFICATION.

Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) — A standard numerical code

system developed by the United Nations to classify commodities used in international trade. Compare NOMENCLATURE OF THE CUSTOMS COOPERATION COUNCIL, STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION.

Stat — A direct paper reproduction of two-dimensional graphics without the use of photographic film.

State-Controlled Trading Company — In a country with a state trading monopoly, atrading entity empowered by the country’s government to conduct export business.

State Federation — Organization of AFL unions located within a state.

Stepper Switch — Electrical relay that is timed to activate further mechanisms after it has itself been activated.


ST Labor — Work performed on straight time.

Stock Bill — A list of specific materials and sizes.

Stock Exhibits — A pre-designed unit adapted to particular use by identification, color, graphics and minor structural modifications.

Story Pole — Fixed pole with predetermined layout markings.

Stretcher — General term for cross member mounted between sides or legs of cabinets, or between upright poles in a pipe and drape booth, to ensure rigidity. These typically hold the drape to form the booth.

Strike the Show — 1. Term used in some cities to describe the dismantle of exhibits. 2. To remove all scenery and props from the stage.

Strip Light — Fluorescent lighting wired in a line.

Strong Back — A framing member using the triangular system to support a cantilever load.

Stud — Vertical structural wall support of wood or metal.

Styrofoam — Trade name for lightweight rigid form of compressed polystyrene crystals.

Subcontractor — Company retained by a primary contractor to provide services to exhibitors or show management.

Submersible Pumps — Pumps that operate underwater.

Survey — Solicitation of exhibitor’s or attendees opinions

Switch – Electrical on/off switch used directly in wiring to control, by make or break, the flow of current.

System — A stock set of components that can be put together to make an exhibit.


T&M — An abbreviation of a form of billing through labor costs (time) and materials.

TL — Truckload.

TLO — Total Loss Only.


Table Skirt ––- Any fabric used to skirt a display table.

Table Top Display — Exhibit designed for use on top of a table.

Talent — Outside personnel stationed in a trade show exhibit to demonstrate a product, provide attraction to booth or greet visitors. Includes magicians and similar attractions. See MODELS, PRESENTERS.

Tape Blip — An audible impulse that activates an electric mechanism.

Tapered Edge — Any material that is reduced in thickness at its outer edge.

Tapping — Technique of threading hole in metal to receive machine screw.

Tare Weight — The weight of a container and/or packing materials without the weight of the goods it contains. Compare GROSS WEIGHT.

Target Date — A date set by show management and/or general service contractor for the arrival of freight at a trade show. Usually shipments received before or after this date are assessed a penalty charge.

Tariff — Rules and rates of a specific carrier.

Teardown — Dismantle.

Telescopic Pipe — Drape support where one section slides inside another for use at various lengths.

Tempered Pressed Wood — A hardwood product generally used in backwall paneling.

Template — Pattern or guide for various repetitive shop functions.

Temporary Import –– Exhibition material whose temporary import status exempts payment of duties and taxes on arrival.

Temporary Import Bond – The surety covering articles imported into a country on a temporary basis. This is generally done in lieu of paying import duties and/or taxes. The fee for the bond is non-refundable in most cases.

Terminal —The carrier’s facility for transferring freight

Theatrical Case — A telescoping fiber case with canvas straps.

Thin Wall Conduit.l — Lightweight electrical conduit.

Three Dimensional (3-D) — A flat image having the effect of three dimensions.

Three Wire — Term describing electrical cable with one continuous ground wire in addition to one positive and one negative wire.

Through Bill of Lading — A single bill of lading covering both the domestic and international carriage of an export shipment. An air waybill, for instance, is essentially athrough bill of lading used for air shipments. Ocean shipments, on the other hand, usually require two separate documents—an inland bill of lading for domestic carriage and an ocean bill of lading for international carriage. Through bills of lading, therefore, cannot be used. Compare AIR WAYBILL, BILL OF LADING, INLAND BILL OF LADING, OCEAN BILL OF LADING.

Tie-Off — A method of securing shipment by use of nylon belts and block latches.

Time and Materials — A method of billing for work done. Similar to cost plus, but without any extra fee or mark up.

TIR Carnet –– Similar to an ATA Carnet, but used for trucks from non-

EC countries to EC countries or for transit between non-EC countries. Can be used for different unloading locations. Trucks must be sealed by Customs.

T-Nut –––Recessed, threaded fastening device.

Toggle Switch — A lever moved back and forth to open or close an electric circuit.

Ton — Freight rates for liner cargo generally are quoted on the basis of a certain rate per ton, depending on the nature of the commodity. This ton, however, may be a weight ton or a measurement ton. Short ton = 2000 lbs. Long ton = 2200 Lbs.

Tongue and Groove — Construction technique of assembling two wood elements, one having a protrusion, the other having a recess.

Top Hat –– A metal tube that fits in the front of a lighting fixture to reduce the spill of stray light without reshaping the beam or creating hard edges.

Touch Up — Paints accompanying an exhibit, in the necessary colors, for the purpose of painting nicks and scratches.

Tow Motor — See FORKLIFT.

Tractor Trailer — Tractor is the driving unit of a large truck; trailer is the container unit.

Trade Fair — Broadly, the commonly used international term for an exposition.

Trade Out — A type of barter. For example, a show manager might do a trade out with a publishing company, giving the publisher a free booth in exchange for free advertising.

Trade Show — An exposition held for members of a common or related industry. Notopen to the general public.

Trade Show Exhibitors Association — Trade association for organizations that use exhibits as a marketing, promotional or communications medium. Also designated by the acronym TSEA. Formerly known as the International Exhibitors Association (IEA).

Traffic Flow — A supposed or directed path the audience will take through an exposition or exhibit.

Tramp Steamer — A ship not operating on regular routes or schedules. Calls at any point where cargo is available.

Translite — A defused transparency, usually mounted between rigid plastic panels.

Transparency — A black and white or color translucent (see-through) photograph or artwork.

Traveler — A heavy duty traverse rod for drapery.

Trouble Box —SEE GANG BOX or JOB BOX.

Truckload — Truckload rates apply where the tariff shows a truckload minimum weight. Charges will be at the truckload minimum weight unless weight is higher.

Turnbuckle — Hardware installed between stretched cable to adjust tension.

Turnkey Exhibit — A system whereby the exhibit manager turns responsibility of the display over to an exhibit services company. In essence, the exhibitor simply “turns the key” upon arrival at the show and opens the booth.

Turntable — Electrically or manually rotating platform.

Turret Projector — General term for slide projector that stores slides in rotating cylinder, dropping or passing slides one at a time between light source and lens.

TV Monitor — A cathode ray tube (CRT) used to show a video image , also refers to LED (light emitting diode) monitors, plasma monitors, liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors, and rear projection monitors.

Twinkle Lights — Flickering or intermittent lights.

Twist Lock — Type of electrical plugs that are connected by twisting them together, asopposed to standard male and female plugs.

Typeset Copy — Text whose type has been mechanically set prior to reproduction.

Tyrex Cord — A type of cord that, within proper specifications, makes an acceptable electrical cord for exhibits.


USS— U.S. Standard Gauge for bolt threads.

UL (Underwriters Laboratory) — An organization ask EDPA.

U/W — Underwriter.

Ultraviolet Lamp — A source of ultraviolet light used with phosphorescent and fluorescent paints.

Union — An organization of workers formed for mutual benefit and for the purpose of dealing collectively with their employer in wages, hours, working conditions, and other matters pertaining to their employment.

Union Contract — Written agreement between an employer and a union specifying the terms and conditions of employment for workers. Also known as COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENT.

Union Jurisdiction —The jobs that may be performed by a specific labor union. SEE JURISDICTION.

Union Official — Representative of a union either selected or elected to conduct the affairs of the union.

Union Referral— Method of hiring in which the union refers job applicants to the employer. Differs from central hiring hall in that there is no fixed location at which applicants gather.

Union Steward — On-site union official; union official who will represent the union workers in relation to the terms of the agreements.

Upright — Metal support for drapes. See POST.

Upson Board — Fiberboard of varying thickness, used as the surface for visual enhancement such as paint or decoration.

Useage ––– Temporary storage area for excess furniture, carpet and equipment.

Typically used by general service contractor on show site.


VAT — Value Added Tax. Applies to all EC countries, Switzerland and other countries around the world. A tax on the estimated market value added to any product at each stage of its manufacture or distribution, ultimately passed on to the consumer. The percentage applies to CIF value and duties and the percentage differs from one country to another. Local VAT on forwarding/handling services is not charged between EC companies with a registered VAT number, or to non-EC exhibitors on condition the local forwarder executes Customs clearance and transport.

Vacuum Forming — Technique for molding plastic sheets by heating and drawing sheets in a vacuum press.

Valance — A short overhead, decorative border normally used as a light baffle or screen.

Validated Export License — A document issued by the U.S. Government authorizing the export of commodities for which written export authorization is required by law. Compare GENERAL EXPORT LICENSE.

Velcro — Brand name of hook and loop fastener used to adhere objects to a display. Has two components: hook and fabric. The two components adhere to one another, but may be easily separated and reattached, allowing graphics and other materials to be moved.

Velour — A plush fabric like velvet, used for draperies, upholstery, etc.

Veneer ––- Finish product that is applied over a base material, or substrate.

Venue ––- Any place that you can conduct a trade show.

Vertical Show — A show in which the products or services being displayed represent one element of an industry or profession. Compare HORIZONTAL SHOW.

Video Formats — 3/4″, 1/2″ (VHS & BETA), PAL, SECAM; CD, DVD, standard sizes of videotape.

Vinyl — Plastic material used for drapes or tabletops.

Vinyl Tops — Plastic tabletop coverings.

Visitor — An attendee at an exposition. A potential customer.

Visqueen — A type of clear plastic sheeting used to protect carpeting from the time it is laid to the time the show opens. ALSO KNOWN AS POLY

Volume (VOL) — Volume rates or classes are those for which a volume minimum weight (Vol. min. wt.) is provided; charges will be assessed at the volume minimum weight shown in the tariff, except that actual weight will apply when in excess of the volume minimum weight.

Voltage –– The potential difference between any two conductors or between a conductor and a ground.


W&I — Weighing and Inspection.

WA (With Average) — A marine insurance term meaning that a shipment is protected from partial damage whenever the damage exceeds 3 percent (or some other percentage).


Wage Pattern — The wage structure of various jobs in a specific industry or area.

Wage Rate — Rate of pay per period of time or per unit of production for an employee on a given job.

Wallboard — A soft wood product used in one-time paneling or where whiteness and softness is desired.

Walsh-Healy Act — Federal law establishing wage, hour, and working conditions for government contractors.

Warehouse Receipt — A receipt issued by a warehouse listing goods received for storage.

Waste Removal — Removal of trash from building.

Waybill — List of enclosed goods and shipping instructions, sent with material in transit.

Wet Mount — Process of wetting photo blowup prior to wrapping it around panel.

Wharfage — A charge assessed by a pier or dock owner for handling incoming or outgoing cargo.

Wheeler — An upright, manually propelled, two wheeled cart used to move objects such as boxes. ALSO KNOWN AS TWO-WHEEL DOLLY.

Wide Angle Lens — Special lens on projector for wider than normal image projection.

Wing Nut — Commonly used threaded nut with flanges. Used for connecting backwall panels, and preferred for their easy adjustment by hand.

Wire Nut — Plastic thimble with recessed spring that closes spliced wires so that electrical contact is maintained.

Wishbone Leg — Fold-up leg on display table.

Without Reserve — A term indicating that a shipper’s agent or representative is empowered to make definitive decisions and adjustments abroad, without the approval of the group or individual represented. Compare ADVISORY CAPACITY.

Work Rules — Regulations that govern union craftspersons’ working conditions. Includes what type of work an exhibitor may perform, when overtime begins, etc.

Work Time — Paid time that begins as soon as the workers are turned over to the exhibitor. Stops when the exhibitor releases them.

Working Drawing — The detail plans from which an exhibit is constructed.

Working Foreman — Employee who functions both as a workman and a foreman at the same time. May be a workman part of the time and a foreman the rest of the time. May or may not be considered a supervisor under the Wage-Hour Law and the Labor Management Relations Act.